19.7oz per sq yd, 12K Filaments/Yarn, Unidirectional Construction, Sold 1 Yard by 50″ Width
This is sold by the linear yard
Weave: 2×2 Twill Carbon Fiber
Tow Size: 12K
Heavy duty 2×2 twill weave. 12K Tow Size for fast buildup. More difficult to form than lighter weight carbon due to its high weight and thread thickness. Not generally used for cosmetic applications. Excellent for flat parts and high strength requirements.
|Twill Weave Carbon Fiber Fabric - 19.7oz - 12K - 2x2 (Yard x 50)||5 - 99||$2.45 flat $45.00|
|Twill Weave Carbon Fiber Fabric - 19.7oz - 12K - 2x2 (Yard x 50)||100 +||$8.45 flat $39.00|
Carbon fiber (carbon fibre), alternatively graphite fiber, carbon graphite or CF, is a substance consisting of extremely thin fibers approximately 0.005-0.010 mm in diameter and made mostly of carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are bonded together in microscopic crystals that are basically aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The crystal alignment makes the fiber extremely strong for its size. Several thousand carbon fibers are twisted together to form a tow, which may be used solely or woven into a fabric. Carbon fiber has a great number of different weave patterns and can be combined with a plastic resin and wound or molded to form composite parts such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic to give a high strength-to-weight ratio material. The density of carbon fiber is also quite a bit lower than the density of steel, making it well-suited for applications requiring low weight. The properties of carbon fiber such as low weight, high tensile strength, and low thermal expansion make it very popular in aerospace, military, civil engineering, and motorsports, along with other competition sports. Unfortunately, it is relatively expensive when compared to similar materials such as plastic and fiberglass. Carbon fiber is very strong when in tension or bent, but not strong when compressed or exposed to high shock (for example a carbon fiber pultruded rod is extremely troublesome to bend, but will crack easily if hit with a hammer).
In 1958, Roger Bacon created high-performance carbon fibers at the Union Carbide Parma Technical Center, found outside of Cleveland, Ohio. Those fibers were created by heating strands of rayon until they carbonized. This process was shown to be inefficient, as the resulting fibers had only about 20 percent carbon and had stiffness and low strength properties. In the early 1960s, a process was developed by doctor Akio Shindo at Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of Japan, using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a raw material. This produced a carbon fiber that contained about fifty five % carbon.
The great potential for strength of carbon fiber was realized in 1963 in a process invented the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough, Hampshire. The program was patented by the UK Ministry of Defense and licensed to three British companies: Rolls-Royce, already manufacturing carbon fiber, Morganite & Courtaulds. They were able to bring to existence industrial carbon fiber production facilities within a few years, and Rolls-Royce took advantage of the new material’s properties to break into the American market with its RB-211 aero-engine.
Even then, though, there were concerns over the ability of British industry to make the best of this breakthrough. In nineteen sixty nine a House of Commons select committee inquiry into carbon fiber, asked: “How then is the nation to reap the maximum benefit without it becoming yet another British invention to be exploited more successfully overseas?” Ultimately, this concern was fully realized. Each of the licensees pulled out of carbon fiber creation. Rolls-Royce’s interest was in the latest aero-engine applications. Its own production process was to let it to be leader in the use of carbon fiber reinforced plastics. In-house manufacture would typically cease once reliable commercial sources became available.
Unfortunately, Rolls-Royce pushed the the latest technology too far, too quickly, in using carbon fiber in the engine’s compressor blades, which proved easily damaged from bird impact. What seemed a great British technological triumph in 1968 quickly became a catastrophe as Rolls-Royce’s ambitious schedule for the RB-211 was endangered. Rolls-Royce’s problems became so great that the company was finally nationalized by Edward Heath’s Conservative government in 1971 and the carbon fiber manufacturing plant sold to form Bristol Composites.
Given the limited market for a very expensive product of variable quality, Morganite also decided that carbon fiber production was peripheral to its core business, leaving Courtaulds as the only big UK manufacturer.
The company continued making carbon fiber, developing two main markets: aerospace and sports equipment. The speed of manufacture and the quality of the product were improved.
During the nineteen seventies, experimental work to find alternative raw materials led to the introduction of carbon fibers made from a petroleum pitch derived from oil processing. These fibers contained about 85% carbon and had excellent flexural strength.
During the 1980s Courtaulds continued to be a major supplier of carbon fiber for the sporting goods markets, with Mitsubishi its main customer. Sadly, a move to expand, including building a production plant in California, turned out poorly. The investment didn’t generate the anticipated returns, leading to a decision to pull out of the area. Courtaulds ceased carbon fiber manufacture in 1991, though ironically the one surviving UK carbon-fiber manufacturer continued to thrive making fiber based on Courtaulds’s precursor. Inverness-based RK Carbon Fibres Ltd has focused on producing carbon fiber for industrial applications, and thus does not need to compete at the quality levels reached by overseas manufacturers.
Each carbon filament thread is a bundle of many thousand carbon fibers. A single such filament is a thin tube with a diameter of 5-8 micrometers and consists almost exclusively of carbon. The earliest generation of carbon fibers (i.e., T300, and AS4) had diameters of 7-8 micrometers. Later fibers (i.e., IM6) have diameters that are approximately 5 micrometers.
Precursors for carbon fibers are rayon, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and pitch. Carbon fiber filament yarns are used in several manufacturing techniques: the direct uses are for prepregging, pultrusion, filament winding, weaving, braiding, etc. Carbon fiber yarn is rated by the linear density (weight per unit length, i.e. 1 g/1000 m = 1 tex) or by number of fibers per yarn count, in thousands. For example, 200 tex for 3,000 filaments of carbon fiber is three times as strong as 1,000 carbon fibers, but is also three times as heavy. This count is usually expressed as 3K, 12K, 6K, etc. This thread can then be used to weave a carbon fiber filament fabric or cloth. The appearance of this fabric generally depends on the linear density of the yarn and the weave chosen. Some commonly used types of weave are plain, 2×2 twill, 4×4 twill and satin.
A common method of manufacture involves heating the spun PAN filaments to approximately 300 ℃C in air, which breaks many of the hydrogen bonds and oxidizes the material. The oxidized PAN is then placed into an oven having an inert atmosphere of a gas such as argon, and heated to approximately 2000 ℃C, which induces graphitization of the material, altering the molecular bond structure. When heated in the correct conditions, these chains bond side-to-side (ladder polymers), creating narrow graphene sheets which finally merge to form a single, columnar filament. The result is usually 93-95% carbon. Low quality carbon fiber can be produced using pitch or rayon as the precursor instead of PAN. The carbon can become further enhanced, as high modulus, or high strength carbon, by heat treatment processes. Carbon heated in the range of 1500-2000 ℃C (carbonization) exhibits the highest tensile strength (820,000 psi, 5,650 MPa or N/mm2), while carbon fiber heated from 2500 to 3000 ℃C (graphitizing) exhibits a higher modulus of elasticity (77,000,000 psi or 531 GPa or 531 kN/mm2).
I purchased some of this 19.7 oz fabric to build some new wings for my light aircraft project. The customer service was exceptional. Your staff was knowledgeable, and helpful. I still have a long way to go, but thank you for helping me get a few steps closer to being finished. If I need any thing else I will be coming to you guys first.
I just wanted to say thank you for your great customer service and an absolutely fantastic product. I called and spoke with your sales person about choosing the right fabric to use on the exterior hull of my sail boat. After a lengthy conversation with him about what I was looking for and how noticeable I wanted my new "carbon " hull to be. He pointed me in the direction of the 19.7oz twill weave cloth. He was right the new carbon is very noticeable and is the envy of the boat yard. So thanks again. I will definitely be purchasing materials from you again for al my boat repair and general tinkering projects; as well as recommending you to my friends.